Chaos Monkey –
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The term Chaos Monkey was popularized by the systems development team at Netflix.
As with many services, products and things you use every day, the Netflix system is built on Amazon Web Services (AWS), a system of cloud platforms and services that enable quick and scalable deployment of products and services.
One of the very first things the Netflix team created was a computer program that purposefully, constantly and randomly crashed their other services (programs) they had running on AWS. By doing so, they were forced to build resilient, recoverable systems.
When AWS has outages, one of the only major systems that usually stays up and available is Netflix. Their systems are resilient because they have Chaos Monkey running around inside their systems.
Netflix has released the Chaos Monkey code into the public domain.